Susan Harmon

Module 6

  • The comparison of two ID models according to Step 3

 Susan Harmon Module 6 on website:


I. Describe two systematic design processes for instructional design.

  • I will start by defining what is “Systematic Design process for Instructional design”?
  • These are basic guidelines for designers of instructional online courses so they have procedures to follow when creating a workshop or a class or even a curriculum(McGriff,2001).This gives them a way to devise  who the person should be to teach, the way they should teach and the where they should teach and actually how to train people, which actually is based on an overall idea that the training process has an order to it ,through analyzing of the  requirements  and then the ability to respond  with support materials and training we can then create good working examples to use as a process to improve instruction. Using Models like Assure, Addie, and Carey models help Instruction developers to identify performance problems of the students and then decide which instruction model works best.
  • As part of a joint, inter-university project, Barson (1967) defined instructional development as the systematic process for improving instruction.”.

The Two Models I am using are:

1.Gerlach & Ely model of instruction, first introduced in 1971, Designed by Vernom S. Gerlach and Donald P. Ely, this model is used for classroom teachers. (Ely, as cited in Grabowski & Branch, 2003).This model uses the basic principles of teaching and uses media that is for k-12 but also in Undergraduate education. Source:

2. ADDIE means: Analyze Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate. It is a model used for course designing for assignments and instructional activities. Designers can easily access and redo their courses before any students begin the course. Source:


A. Begin your comparison with a brief explanation of the steps in each model.

Gerlach & Ely model Steps

  1.  Objectives
  2. Assessments of Behaviors
  3.  Strategy
  4. Organization of Groups
  5. Time To Do This
  6.  Space To do this
  7. Choice of Resources
  8. Assessment of Performance
  9. Feedback and interpretation





 This method of instruction has these 5 steps:

  • Analyze,
  • Design,
  • Develop,
  • Implement and Evaluate


 ADDIE Model

"ADDIE" stands for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate. This Instructional Design model that has been around and used for a  very long time. It is a linear model but if you have your own course materials you can deviate from this model. This is a “project management tool” which can help one think about each step in designing your course.







Pre-planning; thinking about the course

Design your course on paper

Develop course materials and assemble the course

Begin teaching

Look at the course outcomes with a critical eye

  • Design of course
  • Audience
  • Goal
  • Objectives
  • Identify contnet
  • Identify Environment and Delivery
  • Instructional Strategies
  • Assessment Strategies
  • Formative Evaluation
  • Constraints
  • Name the learning units of Instruction
  • Identify content and strategies for an individual unit of instruction
  • Write instructions for the learning unit
  • Name the menu items for a learning module
  • Based on design phase
  • Build content, assignments, assessments
  • Build course structure
  • Upload content
  • Overview of course
  • Expectations
  • Initiate instruction
  • Interaction
  • Ask for feedback early on (formative evaluation)
  • Did the students achieve expected learning outcomes?
  • What have you learned?
  • How can you make the course better?


  1. Compare and contrast two of the ID models that you feel are most appropriately used in planning for distance education.
  • It appears that Addie and Gerlach and Ely models both have similarities from step 4 on, where the teachers integrate and plan time and space and resources and even in step 8 where the instructors choose the correct materials used to teach (development step) and of course in the last step they both have analysis of their feedback and look at the goals and revise. (Chen, 2004).

 Similarities and differences,

  • Both models are very clear in their structure and content which is important for us instructors and /or designers in the planning stages of our materials to use in teaching or creating our courses and actually then helps the student who is then given such user friendly and organized materials. But both models could take away the humanistic factor because they are both systematic approaches. Both models analyze before writing content then reassess before completing the model. Gerlach &Ely seem more specific and detailed compared to ADDIE model.
  • Weakness of ADDIE:
    • Appears to be many weaknesses:
    • Works well for “static” content which is restrictive for “user content”
    • It assumes that one knows every requirement before we can even develop the course content.
    • Not conducive for creativity in designing
    • Difficult to understand
    • Support to help is not there
    • Promotes poor design

SOURCES: Allen Interactions from Rapid Interactive Design for E-Learning Certificate Program
© 2007 Allen Interactions

Strengths of ADDIE:

This model of designing appears to be good for easy collaboration between the designer and the instructor in higher education. This model is really flexible because at any time one can actually look at things and change them easily and quickly and  it may help identify where to start in creating a very large assignment.” ADDIE is a cycle”, meaning that it is flexible enough to allow anyone, at anytime to revisit a step, and refine it. I really like that about this model. Another reason this approach works in developing instruction is because when given a large assignment, one may not know where to start.

ADDIE helps tell us where there is an entry point for the project, which is helpful for a new or inexperienced designers.”ADDIE, one of the most recognized and used ISD models, is consistent and can be used in a wide range of fields.” Source:


Weakness of Gerlach & Ely:

I guess since this model seems to be made for instructors primarily that could be a problem because the teachers decide the objectives and the content (which I like since I am a teacher) but it could be considered a weakness. See Addie includes design task inventory and performance objectives and then implementation of those so this model appears weak in the implementation as comparison so it may not be as clear. (Chen, 2004).


Strengths of Gerlach & Ely:

Systematic planning is the emphasis here in this model with clearly discussing the teaching goals and the ways to reach the wanted learning results. Defining learning objectives, reassessing the student’s previous education and experience and knowledge is important as a part of the process. The choice of teaching strategy is a part of this model these are all strengths. Then come analysis of the feedback. This model works well with almost any teaching model used currently and these are carefully designed goals with certain detailed plans which can easily be used for either individual or even group assignments. (Grabowski, 2003)


Personal reactions and preferences.

 I like the specificity of the Gerlach and Ely model which really adds to the practicality of its application and creates not a lot of work for me as a teacher and really does not seem to be as time consuming for me as a teacher. I like that I can easily model and use it for group or individual assignments easily. I guess since this model seems to be made for instructors primarily that could be a problem because the teachers decide the objectives and the content .This model is simply made of three parts: design, develop and evaluate. Each part is then broken down into three steps as shown in the chart above. It just seems like we as teachers do not need a lot of time and money and resources to develop a good and effective teaching platform.


700 words


 (500 – 800 words). Place a word count at the end of your answer.

  • Rank and rational for selected topic plans according to Step 4
  • 1.Dick and Carey Instructional Design Model :

This is rated number one for me, because it is really the most popular in the  with educators. The value of this entire program makes it number one for me then. I like that you can reuse materials created before. It focuses on the delivery of the content rather than on how to make the lesson plans. I like the order in the steps and that I can revise and it just seems easier to me all steps are connected.It's structure is very user friendly.



Linear - designed Instruction (LDI):

Ok, There seems to be more limited student choice with this model and more instructor control with this model. But the student does have to complete one module before he or she can go on to the next module, which is usually a good thing but it also could be limiting in my art courses where creativity is important. Many educators like this model because once you accomplish learning skills of one module then you can go onto the next one.


3.Linear-designed Instruction and Learner-directed Design Instruction


 The problems with this model, I think… are mostly that there is an assumption that our students will learn and know the content simply by listening to the instructor. So now we see a shift to student centered teaching, actually… instead of content centered instruction. Now, I know that active learning concepts are the rule here, and that it is only when students actively engage in the content that they can actually learn and remember the content and actually apply this knowledge to the real world. In this content centered model versus the learner centered model, the  focus is placed on the instructor teaching the student through the traditional method of instructor lecturing the student, where as with the other models the student would learn by his or her own discovery and understanding of the topics so not using the traditional lecture mode.


500 word count


  • Planned instructions according to Step 5.

    3. Plan Instructions for Selected Topics:

    • Identify a course or workshop you either currently teach or would like to plan. Ceramics1
    • You will then break the content of this course/workshop down into units-modules-topics. You are creating a basic outline of a course or workshop. My online courses tend to have 3-4 units, 10-12 actual modules with 3-4 topics per module

    • MODULE1:Learning about Clay

    • Topic 1,Getting Started
    • Topic 2,Basic materials
    • Topic 3,Clay Theory
    • Topic 4,Clay terms
    • MODULE 2:Worksheets about Clay Theory and Vocabulary
    • Topics1,Rubrics
    • Topic,Critique Guidelines
    • Topic3,Syllabus
    • TOPIC 1,Examples of Pinch pot Sketch
    • TOPIC 2,Example of Coil Bowl Sketch
    • TOPIC 3,Example of Slab Vase Sketch

    • TOPIC 1,Making a simple pinch pot
    • TOPIC2,Adding a handle to the pinch pot
    • TOPIC3,Adding feet to the pinch pot
    • Topic1,Making Coils
    • Topic2,Making a bottom for your pot
    • Topic3,Shaping the lip of your pot
    • TOPIC1,Rollling out even slabs
    • TOPIC2,Making templates for slabs
    • TOPIC3,Connecting the slabs to make a vase

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