Susan Harmon

Module 5: Research



Susan Harmon


 Liu Penghui ; Chen Zhiwei ; Zhang Xu ; Zhao Jian Guang. 


Theoretical research on theTeaching models of PE distances


education.  Is Part Of 2011 IEEE InternationalSymposium on IT in


Medicine and Education, Dec. 2011, Vol.1, pp.456-459.




The research in this article included a detailed study of Physical


Education courses (PE) in China, that could be taught in an on line


environment as a way to introduce and promote the effectiveness of


a new model for teaching PE classes. Analysis and comparisons


between the typical face to face way we teach PE classes and the


newer way that PE classes are taught in a distance learning setting


are provided through documents. The advantages and


disadvantaged are clearly presented and a new model for teaching


PE in an online classroom is presented. The authors of this article


are professors in major universities in China and in various


academic departments such as PE, Transportation and Foreign


languages. Due to the expanding interest in students’ (non


traditional and traditional) to take and have a strong interest in PE


classes, as it is that Face to face traditional PE courses cannot offer


enough options and reach students in “all walks of life”. Through


surveys, analyzing documents and even interviewing experts in this


field, these authors concluded that distance learning in PE


education needs to change the current PE teaching curriculum and


adapt it to fit online teaching environment, utilizing internet


technologies and systems. This research article was especially


interesting to me because I have taken an online PE course and I do


agree with the conclusions that methods of teaching PE in an


online environment needs to be changed and improved and there


definitely is a new strong interest in the current population to take


online PE classes, especially with a stronger emphasis in living a


healthier life style.



Yuen Yee Wong, Jing Zeng and Chun Kit Ho. Trends in open and


distance learning research: 2005 vs 2015, Asian Association of Open


Universities Journal, Vol. 11 Issue: 2,





This article involves a study by Zawacki-Richter et al. (2009) who


studied 288 articles that had been published in 7 important ODL,


(Open and Distance Learning )journals in the years 2005 and 2015.


They found that the research that had been done involved a serious


lack of both theoretical and methodological coverage and very


weak. The article begins by discussing the 4 criteria used in


choosing the journals to read and then continues to discuss the


coding procedures and the variables used. Two raters were used to


decide if the articles were empirical or non empirical. The


conclusive results were that Micro level research in Instruction


design did dominate. This article compares the research areas and


methods and type of participants and says that macro level distance


education systems and theories research on global and cultural


areas of distance learning is weak and not much international


collaborating has been going on. The article shows that quantitative


research has truly become the more important method used in 2015


versus 2005 and many key terms have changed in the year 2015. 


The changes that happened were especially noticed in the tools used


in distance education.Top of Form  This research only looked at


comparing the beginning and then the end of a ten year period,


2005 and 2015 and not the changes in the years in between.  More


variables used could have given a deeper understanding of the


research. The article does give ODL. Researchers some insightful


ways to develop their own research in an effective way and that


would possibly make their research more accepted. Also the article


talks about the types of research that is more likely to be accepted


to publications so that is helpful for researchers in this area.



Olaf Zawacki-Richter. Research Areas in Distance Education: A


Delphi Study. June –2009, International Review of Research in


Open and Distance Learning Volume 10,Number 3. ISSN: 1492-


3831. Fern Universität in Hagen, Germany.



 In this research article, the participants (experts) were selected


according to very specific criteria and were asked to list 10 research


areas of interest to them in distance education. The author used  


a literature review on each topic and a qualitative analysis from the


responses to draw the conclusions that were made. Classifications


were made according to three categories:


1. Distance education systems and theories;

2. Management, organization, and technology;

3. Teaching and learning in distance education.


 This study intended to identify the most important and the


weakest  areas of research in distance education and to develop a


research categorization of distance education. They drew their


conclusions from a literature review and a Delphi study to provide


prospective researchers results so they can then identify priority


areas needed to research. It does appear, that in conclusion, there


are still issues referring to the access of the role especially in


developing areas and student support services and in technologies


which are still very important and that the field has been


dominated by strong research in the area of technology and


interactivity through the new developed media but that these areas


still need to be continued to be researched. Due to the increase of


the global education now researchers need to continue to target


people who use distance learning to learnThis research article has


its limitations; first of all it was limited to English speaking


participants and, of course, they had to have internet connections


so the results may not be applicable to non English speaking people


or where there is no access to the internet.




Report of the trends for research  in

  • Distance education;
  • Distance Education Systems and
  • Online Course Research .
  • (add word count at the end of the page )

Summarize and post the current research on distance education, distance education systems and online course research on website/wiki within 500-800 words.






Research on DL, Digital Learning, will help to take away limits that we may have within our classroom and provide us the freedom to develop quality education anytime and anywhere. Research results will only empower us as educators to overcome our most difficult challenges in teaching online. Research in distance education systems, multimedia design and tools is extremely important in makeing the best online courses we can because developing and utilizing the right digital platform will only help personalize our lesson plans and student involvement through use of more interesting tools and ways to monitor student progress and involvement. Research in Pedagogy and teacher contributions is very important so that we can measure student progress and involvement and organize lesson plans better, thus we can target student performance and teachers can focus on student strengths and weaknesses to maximize learning. It is vital to keep students engaged and interested so research is vital to helping us to continue to improve our teaching materials and methods and helps u s assess the concepts, students retain and then those the students do struggle to understand so we can better our classrooms online. In traditional classrooms, it can be difficult to foster group discussions and even question and answer techniques in large groups as students can more easily get distracted and of course teachers struggle to maintain individual contact but due to research in DL, we are now able to improve on these problems by utilizing the devises students already are using, smart phones, tablets etc and thus engage them in more sophisticated tasks which will help with developing critical thinking. Research has concluded that there really are no important differences between the achievements of students in both face to face classrooms and in the online environment and the attitudes of face to face learners versus DL are not as favorable as online students who seem be more motivated internally,however that being said, it does seem that it is more difficult to create successful group interactions online but not impossible. The tools used in an online classroom are extremely important and crucial to the success of the student and the course being offered. The research definitely points out that online education is effective and will only become more popular as we develop,research and utilize better tools in our online courses. However, research seems to be weak in the area of studying certain age groups like k-12 and needs to place more focus on studying the emotional states of the online learner and to improve studies on creating best practices in online learning.


Word count is 600


  • Research in distance education
  • Distance education systems
  • Online course research
  • Teacher’s perceptions
  • Teachers contributes
  • Pedagogy
  • Multimedia design
  • cognition 


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