B. Historical perspectives a global view: Briefly outline the development of distance education in the USA in contrast with another country such as Great Britain or Australia. Some questions to get you started but NOT to limit you: Are there any differences? Why or why not? What drove the expansion of distance education or the need for distance education in the different countries? Think about geographic/economic/political situations that drive educational development. What about technological advancements? (word count: 500 - 800)
Briefly outline the development of distance education in the USA in contrast with another country such as Great Britain or Australia.
Since I lived in Australia for a year I will compare the development of USA distance education to that in Australia.
In 1840 is when Isaac Pitman offered the first course via correspondence in shorthand (page 37).Then Photographic Correspondence society offered correspondence courses and then in Germany correspondence study were started by Langen sccheidt who taught language.1873, Anna Tickernor started a Boston based group to study . This grew to some 10,000 students in 24 years(page37).Correspondence courses continued in popularity at schools like U of Chicago, Moody bible, University of Wisconsin to reach adults mostly who worked or /and had busy lives. This was print based using the postal offices.
So In Australia, Distance Education also began with correspondence course education, offered with the to college students in 1911(later than I the USA) .Also print based and using the post office.
And, because of the very large and vast distances because the large amount of travel that .A national Home study organization was formed in the early 1900s to deal with difficult issues beginning to arise as these courses became very popular issues of fair teaching practices and standards of teaching. Even today with still that vast distance and bad weather in Australia it is more convenient and more economical for students in colleges in Australia to choose distance education.
Next came the development of presenting the academic materials through audiotape or video tape materials and then video conferencing through TV and radio as the radio in the 1920s and Tvin 1940s were invented. Then Satellite communication in 1960s was developed making distance education more cost effective. And, these programs became federally funded. In the states. Albeit poorly planned in the beginning some advances reaching to Alaskan villages were successful. In the 1980s with fiber optics being developed even though expensive as a communication tool in the beginning later became the least expensive method of communication.
Then of course internet invented and students had more access to more interactive materials on the internet based resources offered through the computer. And interaction with the instructor and each other.
Are there any differences? What drove the expansion of distance education or the need for distance education in the different countries?
I do not think an organization was formed like in Australia to deal with early problems from the correspondence courses. Distance education was formed in the US, mainly as an extension of the traditional university and because also of overcrowding classrooms where in Australia the need arose mostly because of the vast distances people would have to travel to get to the colleges.
In Australia it was driven because of such a large country, land mass and vast distances to travel to even get to a city.